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The Census Bureau reports income and poverty estimates from several major national household surveys and programs:

  • Annual Social and Economic Supplement to the Current Population Survey (CPS ASEC)
  • American Community Survey (ACS)
  • Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP)
  • Census 2000 long form
  • Small Area Income and Poverty Estimates Program (SAIPE)


Estimates across surveys and programs differ in a number of ways, such as in the length and detail of questionnaires, the number of households included (sample size), and the methodology used to collect and process data. It is important to understand that different surveys and methods, which are designed to meet different needs, may produce different results. For more background on each survey or program, the difference between them, and how to choose the right data source, refer to the links below.

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